The saiga antelope (/ˈsaɪɡə/, Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered antelope that originally inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe zone from the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and Caucasus into Dzungaria and Mongolia.

They also lived in Beringian North America during the Pleistocene. Today, the dominant subspecies (S. t. tatarica) is only found in one location in Russia (in The Republic of Kalmykia) and three areas in Kazakhstan (the Ural, Ustiurt and Betpak-Dala populations). A proportion of the Ustiurt population migrates south to Uzbekistan and occasionally Turkmenistan in winter. It is extinct in People's Republic of China and southwestern Mongolia. It was hunted extensively in Romania and Moldova until it became extinct in those regions in the end of the 18th century. The Mongolian subspecies (S. t. mongolica) is found only in western Mongolia.

Characteristics Edit

The saiga stands 61–81 centimetres (24–32 in) at the shoulder, and weighs 26–69 kilograms (57–152 lb). The head-and-body length is typically between 100 and 140 centimetres (39 and 55 in). A prominent feature of the saiga is the pair of closely spaced, bloated nostrils directed downward. Other facial features include the dark markings on the cheeks and the nose, and the 7–12 centimetres (2.8–4.7 in) long ears. During summer migrations the saigas' nose helps filter out dust kicked up by the herd and cools the animal's blood. In the winter it heats up the frigid air before it is taken to the lungs.

The coat shows seasonal changes. In summer, the coat appears yellow to red, fading toward the flanks. The Mongolian saiga can develop a sandy colour. The coat develops a pale grayish brown colour in winter, with a hint of brown on the belly and the neck. The ventral parts are generally white. The hairs, that measure 18–30 millimetres (0.71–1.18 in) long in summer, can grow as long as 40–70 millimetres (1.6–2.8 in) in winter. This forms a 12–15 centimetres (4.7–5.9 in) long mane on the neck. Two distinct moults can be observed in a year–one in spring (April to May) and another in autumn (late September or early October to late November or early December). The tail measures 6–12 centimetres (2.4–4.7 in).

Only males possess horns. These horns, thick and slightly translucent, are wax-coloured and show 12 to 20 pronounced rings. With a base diameter of 25–33 millimetres (0.98–1.30 in), the horns of the Russian saiga measure 28–38 centimetres (11–15 in) in length; the horns of the Mongolian saiga, however, reach a maximum length of 22 centimetres (8.7 in).

Ecology and Behavior Edit

Saigas form very large herds that graze in semideserts, steppes, grasslands and possibly open woodlands eating several species of plants, including some that are poisonous to other animals. They can cover long distances and swim across rivers, but they avoid steep or rugged areas. The mating season starts in November, when stags fight for the possession of females. The winner leads a herd of five to 50 females. In springtime, mothers come together in mass to give birth. Two thirds of births will be twins, the remain third of births will be of a single foal.

Saiga, like the Mongolian gazelles, are known for their extensive migrations across the steppes that allow them to escape natural calamities. Saiga are highly vulnerable to the sympatric wolves. Juvenile saiga are targeted by foxes, steppe eaglesgolden eagles, dogs and ravens.

Habitat and Distribution Edit

During the last glacial period, the saiga ranged from the British Isles through Central Asia and the Bering Strait into Alaska and Canada's Yukon and Northwest Territories. By the classical age they were apparently considered a characteristic animal of Scythia, judging from the historian Strabo's description of an animal called the "Kolos" that was "between the deer and ram in size" and was (understandably but wrongly) believed to drink through its nose.

Numerous evidence show the importance of the antelope to Andronovo culture settlements. Illustrations of saiga antelopes can be found among the cave paintings that were dated back to seventh-fifth century B.C. Moreover, saiga bones were found among the remains of other wild animals near the human settlements. The fragmented information shows an abundance of saigas on the territory of modern Kazakhstan in the 14th-16th centuries. The migratory routes ranged throughout the country's area, especially the region between Volga and Ural rivers was heavily populated. The population's size remained high until the second half of the 19th century when excessive horn export began. The high price and demand for horns drove radical hunting. The number of animals decreased in all regions and the migratory routes shifted southward.

After a rapid decline they were nearly completely exterminated in the 1920s, but they were able to recover. By 1950, two million of them were found in the steppes of the USSR. Their population fell drastically following the collapse of the USSR due to uncontrolled hunting and demand for horns in Chinese medicine. At one point, some conservation groups, such as the World Wildlife Fund, encouraged the hunting of this species, as its horn was presented as an alternative to that of a rhinoceros.

Today, the populations have again shrunk enormously — as much as 95% in 15 years.[22] The saiga is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN. An estimated total number of 50,000 saigas survive today in Kalmykia, three areas of Kazakhstan and in two isolated areas of Mongolia. Another small population in the Pre-Caspian region of Russia remains under extreme threat.[23]

Cherny Zemli Nature Reserve was created in Russia's Kalmykia Republic in the 1990s to protect the local saiga population. Kalmykia's president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced 2010 as the Year of Saiga in Kalmykia. In Kazakhstan, the number of saiga was found to be increasing, from around 21,000 at the beginning of this millennium to around 81,000 in January 2010. However, in May 2010, an estimated 12,000 of the 26,000 Saiga population in the Ural region of Kazakhstan have been found dead. Although the deaths are currently being ascribed to pasteurellosis, an infectious disease that strikes the lungs and intestines, the underlying trigger remains to be identified. In May 2015, what may be the same disease broke out in three northern regions of the country. As of 28 May 2015, more than 120,000 saiga antelope have been confirmed dead in the Betpak-Dala population in central Kazakhstan, representing more than a third of the global population. By April, 2016, the saiga appear to be making a comeback, with increase of population from 31,000 to 36,000 in the Betpak-Dala area.

Kazakhstan in November 2010 reaffirmed a ban on hunting saiga antelopes, and extended this ban until 2021, as the Central Asian nation seeks to save the endangered species. The Mongolian saiga (S. t. mongolica) is found in a small area in western Mongolia around the Sharga and Mankhan Nature Reserves. Currently, only the Moscow Zoo and Askania-Nova keep sagas. Cologne Zoological Garden and San Diego Zoo had them in the past. Pleistocene Park in northern Siberia plans to introduce the species.

Threats and Conservation Edit

The horn of the saiga antelope is used in traditional Chinese medicine, and can sell for as much as $150. Demand for the horns has wiped out the population in China, where the saiga antelope is a Class I protected species, and drives poaching and smuggling.

Under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Concerning Conservation, Restoration and Sustainable Use of the Saiga Antelope was concluded and came into effect 24 September 2006. The saiga's decline being one of the fastest population collapses of large mammals recently observed, the MoU aims to reduce current exploitation levels and restore the population status of these nomads of the Central Asian steppes.

In June 2014, Chinese customs at the Kazakh border uncovered 66 cases containing 2,351 saiga antelope horns, estimated to be worth over Y70.5 million (US$11 million). At that price, each horn would cost over US$4,600. In June 2015, E.J. Milner-Gulland (chair of Saiga Conservation Alliance) said, 'Anti-poaching needs to be a top priority for the Russian and Kazakh governments.'

Hunting Saiga Edit

Saiga is a target of hunting since prehistoric ages, when hunting was an essential means to acquire food. Saiga's horns, meat, and skin have commercial value and are exported from Kazakhstan.

Saiga horn, Cornu Antelopis, is one of the main ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine that is used as an extract or powder additive to the elixirs, ointments, and drinks. Saiga horn's value is equal to rhinoceros horn, whose trade was banned in 1993. Cornu Antelopis is thought to be a cheaper substitute of rare rhino horn in most TCM recipes. Although the hunting and trade is considered illegal, the horn products still can be found sold publicly and openly in a great variety of venues and businesses.

Saiga's meat is compared to sheep's, it is considered to be nutritious and delicious. Numerous recipes for cooking the antelope's meat can be found. In the period from 1955 to 1993 roughly 92 tonnes of meat were collected in Kazakhstan by killing more than five millions sagas. Both meat and by-products are sold in the country and outside of it. About 45-80 dm2 of skin can be yielded from one individual depending on its age and sex. The skin is used to produce suede and box calf.

Physical Barriers Edit

Agricultural advancement and human settlements kept shrinking the habitat areas of the saigas since 20th century. Occupants limited saiga's passage to water resources and the winter and summer habitats. The ever-changing face of steppe makes saiga search for new routes to their habitual lands. Nowadays, saiga populations' migratory routes pass five countries and different man-made constructions, such as railways, trenches, mining sites, and pipelines. These physical barriers limit movement of the antelopes. There are reported cases that saiga herds were trapped within the fenced area and starved to death unable to find an exit.[37] Starting from 2011 Kazakhstan has built more than 150 km of wire fence at the border with Uzbekistan. This fence limits seasonal migration of not only saigas but smaller animals as well. Although the concerns have been stated, the fences are still being built.

Climatic Variability Edit

Saiga is dependent on weather and affected by climate fluctuations to the high extent due to their migratory nature. Harsh winters with strong winds or high snow coverage disables feeding on the grass under the thick snow. Population size usually dramatically decreases after severe cold months. Recent trend in climate change leads to increasing aridity of the steppe region, thus, deficiency of the grazing pastureland. It was estimated that already more than 14% of available pastureland are considered as degraded and useless. Consequently, small steppe rivers dry faster limiting water resources to large lakes and rivers, which are usually populated by human settlements. Moreover, high temperature in the steppe region leads to springtime floods, in which saiga calves can drown. Cumulatively, these facts show that existence of saiga in the Anthropocene age is highly dependent on people.

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