The moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) is a species of mammal in the family Erinaceidae. It is the only species in the genus Echinosorex. The species name is sometimes given as E. gymnurus, but this is incorrect.

Description Edit

The moonrat has a distinct pungent odour with strong ammonia content, different from the musky smell of carnivores. There are two subspecies: E. g. gymnura is found in Sumatra and the Thai-Malay Peninsula; E. g. alba is found in Borneo. In the former the head and frontal half of the body are white or grey-white; the remaining is mainly black. The latter subspecies is generally white (alba means white in Latin), with a sparse scattering of black hairs; it appears totally white from a distance. Those from western Borneo tend to have a greater proportion of black hairs than those from the east, but animals from Brunei appear intermediate. Largely white E. g. gymnura also occur, but they are rare.

Head and body length is 32–40 cm (13–16 in), tail length is 20–29 cm (7.9–11.4 in), hind foot length is 6.5–7.5 cm (2.6–3.0 in) and weight is 870–1,100 g (1.92–2.43 lb). The dental formula is × 2 = 44. It is possibly the largest member of the order Erinaceomorpha, although the European hedgehoglikely weighs a bit more at 1,000 g (2.2 lb) and up to 2,000 g (4.4 lb).

Distribution Edit

Moonrats inhabit most jungle terrain in southern Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Although they are closely related to the short-tailed gymnure (Hylomys suillus) and to the hedgehog, full grown specimens more closely resemble large rats, with which they share similar habits and ecological niches. In Borneo, they occur at many sites throughout the lowlands and up to 900 m in the Kelabit Highlands. They appear to be absent or rare in some localities, possibly due to a shortage of suitable food.

Ecology and Habitat Edit

Moonrats are nocturnal and terrestrial, lying up under logs, roots or in abandoned burrows during the day. They inhabit moist forests including mangrove and swamp forests and often enter water. In Borneo, they occur mainly in forests, but in peninsular Malaysia they are also found in gardens and plantations. They feed on earthworms and various small animals, mostly arthropods.

Behavior and Reproduction Edit

Moonrats release strong odours with a strong ammonia content to mark the edges of their territories and warn other moonrats to stay away with threatening hisses also to ward off predators. Adults live alone. When they are preparing to have young, they will make nests mostly from leaves. Females usually have two babies at one time.

Diet Edit

The moonrat is an omnivore, known to eat a wide range of invertebrates—for example, worms, insects, crabs and other invertebrates found in moist areas. They will also eat fruit, and occasionally frogs or fish.

Lifespan Edit

The lifespan of the moonrat is up to five years.

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