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Crocodylus acutus mexico 02-edit1

American Crocodile in La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico

American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) are a shy and reclusive species. They live in coastal areas throughout the Caribbean, and occur at the northern end of their range in south Florida. They live in brackish or saltwater areas, and can be found in ponds, coves, and creeks in mangrove swamps. They are occasionally being encountered inland in freshwater areas of the SE Florida coast as a result of the extensive canal system.

Like alligators, crocodiles are ectothermic, meaning they rely on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. Crocodiles control their body temperature by basking in the sun, or moving to areas with warmer or cooler air or water temperatures. A basking crocodile may be surprised by an approaching person and quickly (and noisily) enter the water. This behavior might startle the person, but it should not be misunderstood. Crocodiles would normally enter the water quietly; splashing away indicates that the crocodile is frightened.

Crocodiles can also be seen sunning with their mouths open, or "gaping." This behavior is also related to regulating their body temperature, and does not mean that the crocodile is acting aggressively toward people. It is also found in river systems, but has a tendency to prefer, not merely to tolerate, some level of salinity, resulting in the species's congregating in brackish lakes, mangrove swamps, lagoons, cays, and small islands. Other crocodiles also have tolerance to salt water due to salt glands underneath the tongue, but the American crocodile is the only species other than the saltwater crocodile (C. porosus) to commonly live and thrive in salt water. They can be found on beaches and small island formations without any freshwater source, such as some of the many cays and islets across the Bahamas and the Caribbean. They are also found in hypersaline lakes; one of the largest known populations inhabits the Lago Enriquillo.

The American is one of the larger crocodile species. Males can reach lengths of 6.1 m (20 ft), weighing up to 907 kg (2,000 lb). On average, mature males are more in the range of 4.1 m (13 ft) to 4.8 m (16 ft) in length weighing about 400 kg (880 lb). As with other crocodile species, females are smaller; rarely exceeding 3.8 m (12 ft) in length.

This species has a more V-shaped snout, compared to other large crocodiles, which usually have a slightly wider snout. Adults have a uniform grayish-green coloration with white or yellow undersides, while juveniles have dark cross-banding on the tail and back. Despite their large size, American crocodiles do not regularly attack large animals, as most large crocodilians do. Fish, reptiles, birds and small mammals make up the majority of their diet. On occasion, large mammals such as deer and cattle are taken. Their dietary habits in coastal regions are not well studied. Like any other large crocodilian, the American crocodile is potentially dangerous to humans, but it is not a very aggressive species and attacks are rare.

Characteristics Edit

Like all crocodilians, the American crocodile is a quadruped, with four short, stocky legs, a long, powerful tail and a scaly hide with rows of ossified scutes running down its back and tail. Its snout is elongated and includes a strong pair of jaws. Its eyes have nictitating membranes for protection along with lachrymal glands, which produce tears.

The nostrils, eyes, and ears are situated on the top of its head, so the rest of the body can be concealed underwater for surprise attacks. Camouflage also helps it prey on food. The snout is relatively longer and narrower than that of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), although broader on average than that of the Orinoco crocodile (C. intermedius). American crocodiles are also paler and more grayish than the relatively dark-hued alligator. This crocodile species normally crawls on its belly, but it can also "high walk". Larger specimens can charge up to nearly 10 mph (16 km/h). They can swim at as much as 20 mph (32 km/h) by moving their bodies and tails in a sinuous fashion, but they cannot sustain this speed.

The American crocodile is sometimes confused with the smaller, Central American Morelet's crocodile, a smaller species that is native to Mexico.

Size Edit

Newborn hatchlings are about 27 cm (10.6 in) in length and about 60 g (2.1 oz) in mass. The average adult in the continental rivers can range from 2.9 to 4 m (9 ft 6 in to 13 ft 1 in) long and weigh up to 382 kg (842 lb) in males, while females can range from 2.5 to 3 m (8 ft 2 in to 9 ft 10 in) and weigh up to 173 kg (381 lb), the lower total length representing their average size at sexual maturity, the upper representing the expected upper size limit for the respective sex in most known populations.

In the Tárcoles River in Costa Rica, dozens of 4 m (13 ft 1 in) and a few 5 m (16 ft 5 in) individuals frequent bridge crossings (where they are fed daily, which may have helped them reach such consistently large sizes) and are a popular tourist attraction. This species is said to grow largest in the South American river basins, but rarely exceed 5 m (16 ft 5 in) or reach 6 m (19 ft 8 in) even there. Crocodiles on the islands or coasts are usually much smaller in size. Adult weight in coastal Belize averaged 77.8 kg (172 lb) per one study. In their Florida range, adult length has been recorded as high as 5.2 m (17 ft 1 in), but adult males on average measure 3.35 m (11 ft 0 in) long, perhaps slightly smaller than mature males from other continental populations. A skull of this species was found to measure 72.6 cm (28.6 in) and is estimated to have belonged to a crocodile of 6.6 m (22 ft) in length. Large, mature males regularly weigh about 400–500 kg (880–1100 lb), with the individuals of six or more meters surpassing 1000 kg (2,200 lb). Two biologists working with the History Channel series MonsterQuest spotted and filmed a crocodile they estimated to be 5 to 5.5 m (16 ft 5 in to 18 ft 1 in), deep within Everglades National Park in Florida.

Distribution and Habitat Edit

C. acutus is the most widespread of the four extant species of crocodiles from the Americas. It inhabits waters such as mangrove swamps, river mouths, fresh waters, and salt lakes, and can even be found at sea, hence its wide distribution throughout the Caribbean islands, southern Florida, the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, Central America, and the South American countries of Colombia and Ecuador. The American crocodile is especially plentiful in Costa Rica. One of its largest documented populations is in Lago Enriquillo, a hypersaline lake in the Dominican Republic. The species has also been recorded from Jamaica. American crocodiles have recently been sighted in Grand Cayman, leading experts to believe the species may be swimming from Cuba (which is home to a massive American crocodile population) and slowly repopulating Grand Cayman. In addition, an American crocodile/Cuban crocodile hybrid was recently discovered in the Cancun area. The crocodile likely originated in the Zapata Swamp of Cuba (the only place where these wild hybrids exist) and swam to the Yucatán Peninsula. Their saline tolerance also allowed the American crocodile to colonize limited portions of the United States (Puerto Rico and extreme southern Florida). Contrary to popular misinformation, the presence of the American alligator is not the reason the American crocodile was unable to populate brackish waters north of Florida, but rather the climate.

American crocodiles, unlike American alligators, are extremely susceptible to cold temperatures and live exclusively within tropical waters. During 2009, unusually cold weather in southern Florida resulted in the deaths of about 150 wild American crocodiles, including a well-known crocodile which inhabited Sanibel Island far north of their natural range.

American crocodiles in the United States coexist with the American alligator, and are primarily found south of the latitude of Miami, in Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the Florida Keys. A sizable population occurs near Homestead, Florida, at the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station. Some individuals wander northward to warm summer waters and have been sighted in Sarasota County and Palm Beach County. In the summer of 2008, a crocodile was captured in the surf on Isle of Palms, South Carolina. In 2013, a 700-pound crocodile was captured in Tarpon Springs, Florida. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission program staff note that the crocodile was not weighed to be 700 lbs. The weight was estimated by the Nuisance Alligator Trapper who inadvertently caught the animal using a baited hook. American crocodiles of similar lengths have been accurately weighed at 450-500 lbs.

The American crocodile is saltwater-tolerant and have thus been capable of colonizing a multitude of islands within the Caribbean islands and on some coastal Pacific islands as well. They coexist with the rather smaller spectacled caiman within Central America. The only other crocodiles present within the American crocodile's range are two species smaller than this species on average: the critically endangered Cuban crocodile, along with the Morelet's crocodile in southern Mexico and Guatemala.

Biology and Behavior Edit

American crocodiles are more susceptible to cold than American alligators. While an American alligator can survive in water of 7.2 °C (45.0 °F) for some time, an American crocodile in that environment would become helpless and drown. American crocodiles, however, have a faster growth rate than alligators, and are much more tolerant of salt water. Cleaning symbiosis involving the American crocodile as client has been described. Unlike the Old World crocodiles, which are sometimes cleared of parasites by birds, the American crocodile relies more on fish for parasite removal.

Hunting and Diet Edit

American crocodiles are apex predators, and any aquatic or terrestrial animal they encounter in freshwater, riparian and coastal saltwater habitats is potential prey. For a long time, primary prey throughout their lifetime was thought to be fish; due to the relatively narrow snout as indicative of this piscivorous preference. However new studies shed light into the dietary preference of this species. The snout of the American crocodile is broader than some specialized fish-eating crocodilians (i.e. gharials (Gavialis gangeticus), freshwater crocodile (C. johnsoni), etc.), allowing it to supplement its diet with a wider variety of prey. In addition the snout gets even broader and bulkier as the animal matures, a sign for a shift in prey items. Prey species have ranged in size from the insects taken by young crocodiles to full-grown cattle taken by large adults, and can include various birds, mammals, turtles, crabs, snails, frogs, and occasionally carrion. In Haiti, hatchling and juvenile crocodiles lived primarily off of fiddler crabs (Uca ssp.), making up 33.8% and 62.3% of the diet by weight, respectively. Elsewhere, aquatic insects and their larvae and snails are near the top of the food list for crocodiles at this very early age. Immature and subadult crocodiles, per a study in Mexico, have a more diverse diet that can include insects, fish, frogs, small turtles, birds and small mammals. One specimen of 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) had a catfish, a mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) and a bare-tailed woolly opossum (Caluromys philander) in its stomach. In Florida, bass, tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and especially mullet, large crabs, snakes, mammals that habit the riparian and coastalregions of the Everglades, such as opossums and raccoons appeared to be the primary prey of subadult and adult American crocodiles. In Haiti, adults appeared to live largely off of various birds (many of which are breeding large waders and other water birds such as heron, storks, flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), pelicans (Pelecanus ssp.), grebes, coots (Fulica americana) and moorhens (Gallinula chloropus)), followed by concentrations of marine fish including Tilapia and Cichlasoma, at times being seen to capture turtles, dogs and goats. One 3 m (9 ft 10 in) adult from Honduras had stomach contents consisting of a 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) crocodile of its own species, a turtle shell and peccary hooves. It was noted that historically in Mexico that, among several local farmers, the capturing of livestock by crocodiles has been a source of some conflict between humans and crocodiles and large adults occasionally can become habitual predators of goats, dogs, pigs and cattle. In Quintana Roo, Mexico, most prey that could be determined was fish for sub-adults and adults with sub-adults having a broader prey base than either younger or adult crocodiles. In Costa Rica, American crocodiles have been recorded hunting and killing adult female  Olive Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) when they come to nest around beaches. Reportedly, these crocodiles hunt primarily in the first few hours after nightfall, especially on moonless nights, although they will feed at any time. It hunts in the typical way for most crocodilian, ambushing terrestrial prey when it comes to edge of the water or is sitting in shallows and dragging it down to be drowned or attempting to ambush aquatic prey from near the surface of the water.

Interspecies predatory relations Edit

Adult American crocodiles have no natural predators and almost any terrestrial or riparian animal they encounter is potential prey. American crocodiles are known predators of lemon sharks, and sharks avoid areas with crocodiles. Usually American crocodiles are dominant over alligators. However on one occasion, an American crocodile, in a Florida zoo escaped its cage and started a fight with a large male American alligator in a bordering pen and was killed by the alligator. Conversely, there is one confirmed case of a crocodile preying on a sub-adult alligator in the wild in Florida. Alligators and crocodiles do not often come into conflict in the wild normally, due largely to habitat partitioning and largely separate distributions. There are several records of American crocodiles killing and eating spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus) in South America as well as additional records of cannibalism there. Areas with healthy American crocodile populations remain often find limited numbers of spectacled caimans, while conversely areas that formerly held crocodiles but where they are now heavily depleted or are locally extinct show a growth of caiman numbers, due to less competition as well as predation. In areas where the two species coexist, smaller but more aggressive Cuban crocodile is behaviorally dominant over the larger American crocodile. In Mexico some Morelet's crocodiles individuals have escaped from captivity, make feral populations and creating a problem for the populations of American crocodile, which must compete with this invasive species. Edit

Reproduction Edit

American crocodiles breed in late fall or early winter, engaging in drawn-out mating ceremonies in which males emit very low frequency bellows to attract females. Body size is more important than age in determining reproductive capabilities, and females reach sexual maturity at a length of about 2.8 m (9.2 ft). In February or March, gravid females will begin to create nests of sand, mud, and dead vegetation along the water's edge. Nest location is crucial, and with the correct amount of vegetation, the eggs will develop within a small temperature range. Because sex determination is temperature-dependent in crocodilians, slight aberrations in temperature may result in all-male or all-female clutches, which would possibly harm the health of the population. About one month later, when it is time to lay, the female will dig a wide hole diagonally into the side of the nest and lay 30 to 70 eggs in it, depending on her size. After laying, the female may cover the eggs with debris or leave them uncovered. The white, elongated eggs are 8 cm (3.1 in) long and 5 cm (2.0 in) wide and have a number of pores in the brittle shell. During the 75- to 80-day incubation period, the parents will guard the nest, often inhabiting a hole in the bank nearby. Females especially have been known to guard their nests with ferocity. But in spite of these precautions, crocodile eggs sometimes fall prey to raccoons (Procyon sp.) (arguably the most virulent natural predator of crocodilian nests in the Americas), coatisfoxes, skunks or other scavenging mammals (even coyotes(Canis latrans) in Mexico and American black bears (Ursus americanus)) in south Florida), as well as large predatory ants, crabs and vultures. In Panama, green iguana (Iguana iguana) were seen to dig up and prey on American crocodile eggs occasionally, although in several cases were caught by the mother crocodile and subsequently consumed. Crocodilian eggs are somewhat brittle, but softer than bird eggs. Young of this species hatch after 75–80 days.

Gallery Edit

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